“Gender Differences in Police Stress and Trauma: An Analysis of Self Reported Stress and Trauma to a Peer Counseling Hotline” Joseph E. Pascarella, Ph.D., M.P.H. Queens College, City University of New York Abstract 120 to 150 Words Statement of the Problem 500 – 750 words Background Research and Evaluation Annotated Bibliography – 5 Peer Reviewed References Radelet, M. A., Lephart, S. M., Rubinstein, E. N. & Meyers, J. B. (2002). Survey of the Injury Rate for Children in Community Sports. Pediatrics, 110, 3, 1-11. • Compared injury rates youths 7-13 • Age 7-13, youth football same injury rate as soccer and baseball, however, significantly more than basketball • According to CDC – among athletes ages 5 to 14, 28 percent of percent of football players, 25 percent of baseball players, 22 percent of soccer players, 15 percent of basketball players, and 12 percent of softball players were injured while playing their respective sports SEMINAL RESEARCH (One Paragraph, 250 words) First, Original Research CHRONOLOGICAL RESEARCH (One Paragraph, 250 words) GAPS in RESEARCH (One Paragraph, 250 words) 500-750 Words Background Research Conclusions and Recommendations 250-750 words References Benotsch, E. G., Brailey, K., Vasterling, J. J., Uddo, M., Constans, J. I., & Sutker, P. B. (2000). War Zone stress, personal and environmental resources, and PTSD symptoms in Gulf War Veterans: A longitudinal perspective. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 109(2), 205-213. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.109.2.205 Blau, T. (1994). Psychological Services for Law Enforcement. NY: Wiley. Boulin-Johnson, L. (1991). Job Strain among Police Officers: Gender Comparisons. Police Studies: International Review of Police Development, 14 (1), 12-16. Bowler, R. M., Han, H., Gocheval, V., Nakagawa, S., Alper, H., DiGrande, L. & Cone, J. E. (2010). Gender differences in probable posttraumatic stress disorder among police responders to the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attack. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 53 (12), 1186-1196. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2010). Percent of full-time sworn employees in 2000 by race/ethnicity and gender. Available at: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/dataonline/Search/Law/Local/RunLawLocalSelectedTables.cfm Brown, J. and Fielding, J. (1993). Qualitative differences and women police officers’ experience of occupational stress. Work & Stress, 71, 327-40. Carlan, P. E. & Nored, L. S. (2008). An Examination of Officer Stress: Should Police Departments Implement Mandatory Counseling? Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 23 (1), 8 – 15. Chandra, A. & Mikovitz, C. S. (2006). Stigma starts early: Gender differences in teen willingness to use mental health services. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 754.e1-754.e8. Chae, M. & Boyle, D. (2013). Chae, M. & Boyle, D.J. (in Press). Police suicide: Prevalence, risk, and protective factors. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management. Cop2Cop. (2012). Cop2Cop. Retrieved from: http://ubhc.umdnj.edu/cop2cop/main.htm Cordner, G. & Cordner, A. (2011). Stuck on a Plateau?: Obstacles to Recruitment, Selection, and Retention of Women Police. Police Quarterly, 14, 207-227. Dowler, K. & Arai, B. (2008). Stress, gender and policing: the impact of perceived gender discrimination on symptoms of stress. International Journal of Police Science & Management. 10 (2), 123-135. Gould, L. A. (2000). A Longitudinal Approach to the Study of the Police Personality: Race/Gender Differences. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 15 (2), 41-51. Hage, S. M., & Romano, J. L. (2010). History of prevention and prevention groups: Legacy for the 21st century. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, And Practice, 14(3), 199-210. doi:10.1037/a0020736 He, N., Zhao, J. & Ren, L. (2005). Do race and gender matter in police stress? A preliminary assessment of interactive effects. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33, 535-547. He, N., Zhao, J. & Archbold, C. A. (2006). Gender and police stress: The convergent and divergent impact of work environment, work-family conflict, and stress coping mechanisms of female and male police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 25 (4), 687-708. Herbert, S. (1998). Police Subculture Reconsidered. Criminology,(36),2, 343–370. Hemp, C. A. (2008). Female officers and the ethic of care: Does officer gender impact police behaviors? Journal of Criminal Justice, 36 (5), 426 -434. Hennings-Plaxton, C. (2004). Law enforcement organizational behavior and the occurrence of post-traumatic stress symptomology in law enforcement personnel following a critical incident. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 19 (2), 53-63. Johnson-Leonor-Boulin. (1991). Job strain among police officers: gender comparisons. Police Studies, 14 (1), 12-16. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Kendler, K. S., Thornton, L. M., Prescott, C. A. (2001). Gender Differences in the Rates of Exposure to Stressful Life Events and Sensitivity to Their Depressiongenic Effects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158 (4), 587-593. Kurtz, D.L. (2008). Controlled Burn: The Gendering of Stress and Burnout in Modern Policing. Feminist Criminology, 3, 216-238. Doi:10.1177/1557085108321672 Langlotz, A. (2007). [Review of the book Calling for Help. Language and Social Interaction in Telephone Helplines]. Discourse and Society, 18 (5), 682-684. Lanterman, J. L., Boyle, D. J., Pascarella, J. E., Furrer, S. (2010). Police Stress and Access to Confidential Support Services. Police Psychology (James E. Peters, Editor). New York: Nova Science Publishers. Littleton, H., Axsom, D., & Grills-Taquechel, A. E. (2011). Longitudinal evaluation of the relationship between maladaptive trauma coping and distress: examination following the mass shooting at Virginia Tech. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 24(3), 273-290. Lengua, L., Stormshak, E. A. (2000). Gender, Gender Roles, and Personality: Gender Differences in the Prediction of Coping and Psychological Symptoms. Sex Roles, 43 (11/12), 787-820. Lilly, M. M., Pole, N., Best, S. R., Metzler, T., & Marmar, C. R. (2009). Gender and PTSD: What can we learn from female police officers? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 767–776. MacKinnon, C. (1998). Empowered Consumers and Telephone Hotlines. Crisis, 19 (1), 21-23. Madonna, J.M. & Kelly, R. E. (2002). Treating Police Stress: The Work and the Words of Peer Counselors. C. Thomas Publisher: Springfield, IL. Martinussen, M., Richardsen, A.M. & Burke, R. J. (2007). Job demands, job resources, and burnout among police officers. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 239-249. Megerian, C. (2010) N.J. Cop2Cop law enforcement suicide prevention program celebrates 10- year anniversary. NJ.COM Online. Retrieved from: )anniversary.html Morash, M., Kwak, D.H. & Haarr, R. (2006). Gender differences in the predictors of police stress. Policing, 29(3), 541-563. Retrieved June 14, 2011, from ProQuest Criminal Justice. (Document ID: 1143421981). McCarty, W., Zhao, J. & Garland, B. (2007). Gender and Work Related Stress in Policing. Policing: An International Journal of Police Science and Management, 30, 672-691. McPherson-Sexton, S. A. (2006). A Comprehensive View of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Populations, Etiology, Treatments, and More. Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations, 6 (1), 93-124. National Center for Women in Policing (2002). Status of Women in Policing, 2001. Available at: http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Status_Report.pdf Norvell, N. K., Hills, H. A., Murrin, M.R. (1993). Understanding Stress in Female and Male Law Enforcement Officers. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 289-301. Ojeda, V. D. & Bergstresser, S. M. (2008). Race-Ethnicity, and Psychosocial Barriers to Mental Health Care: An Examination of Perceptions and Attitudes among Adults Reporting Unmet Need. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49 (3), 317-334. Olff, M., Langeland, W., Draijer, N., Gersons, B. P. R., (2007). Gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133(2), 183-204. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.2.183 Omer, S. B., Barnett, D. J., Castellano, C., Wierzba, R. K., Hiremath, G. S., Balicer, R. D. (2008). Impact of Homeland Security Alter Level on Calls to a Law Enforcement Peer Support Hotline. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 9 (4), 253-258. Ortega, A., Brenner, S.O. & Leather, P. (2007). Stress in police officers and police staff: a structural model. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 9 (1), 36-50. Pineles, S. L., Mostoufi, S. M., Ready, C., Street, A. E., Griffin, M. G., & Resick, P. A. (2011). Trauma reactivity, avoidant coping, and PTSD symptoms: A moderating relationship?. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 120(1), 240-246. doi:10.1037/a0022123 Plaxton-Hennings, C. (2004). Law enforcement organizational behavior and the occurrence of post traumatic symptomology. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, (19) 2, 53-63. Pole, N., Best, S. R., Weiss, D. S., Metzler, T., Liberman, A. M., Fagan, J., Marmar, C. R. (2001). Effects of Gender and Ethnicity on Duty-Related Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Urban Police Officers. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, (7), 442-448. Poteyeva, M. & Sun, I. Y. (2009). Gender differences in police officers’ attitudes: Assessing current empiricial evidence. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 512-522. Price, B. R. (1996). Female Police Officers in the United States. Policing in Central and Eastern Europe: Comparing Firsthand Knowledge with Experience from the West. Available at: http://www.ncjrs.gov/policing/fem635.htm Rochlen, A. B. & Hoyer, W. D. (2005). Marketing Mental Health to Men: Theoretical and Practical Considerations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16 (6), 675-684. Santos, A., Leather, P., Dunn, & Zarola, A. (2009). Gender differences in exposure to co- worker and public-initiated violence: Assessing the impact of work-related violence and aggression in police work. Work & Stress, 23 (2), 137-154. Schaub, M. & Williams, M. (2007). Examining the relations between masculine gender role conflict and men’s expectations about counseling. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8, (1), XX. Schulz, D. M. (1995). From Social Worker to Crimefighter: Women in United States Municipal Policing. Journal of Criminal Justice, 23, 6, 571-572. Seely, M. F. (1998). Hotlines and Mental Health Services. Crisis, 19 (1), 4-5. Sheehan, D. C., Everly, G. S., Langlieb, A. (2004). Current Best Practices: Coping with Major Critical Incidents. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 73 (9), 1-13. Steel, B. S. & Lovrich, N. P. (1987). Equality and Efficiency Tradeoffs in Affirmative Action- Real or Imagined? The Case of Women in Policing. The Social Science Journal, 24 (1), 53-70. Tolin, D. F. & Foa, E. B. (2006). Sex Differences in Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Quantitative Review of 25 Years of Research. Psychological Bulletin, 132 (6), 959-992. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012a). Women at Work. Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2011/women/ United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012b). A century of change: the U.S. labor force, 1950–2050 Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2002/05/art2full.pdf United States Department of Justice (2010). Census of Local and State Law Enforcement Agencies. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. United States Department of Labor. (2010). Women’s Bureau: Statistics and Data. Available at: http://www.dol.gov/wb/stats/main.htm United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2010a). Full-time law enforcement employees. Available at: http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2008/data/table_74.html United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2010b). Facts and Figures, 2003. Available at: http://www.fbi.gov/libref/factsfigure/employ.htm United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2010c). Federal law enforcement officers, 2004. Available at: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/fleo04.pdf United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2010c). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2009. http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/killed/2009/officersassaulted.html University Behavioral Health Care (UBHC). 2012. Cop2Cop: History. Retreived from: http://ubhc.umdnj.edu/cop2cop/history.htm Violanti, J. M., Castellano, C., O”Rourke, J., Paton, D. (2006). Proximity to the 9/11 Terrorist Attack and Suicide Ideation in Police Officers. Traumatology, 12, 248-254. DOI:10.1177/1534765606296533. van Wormer, K. S. & Bartollas, C. (2010). Women and the Criminal Justice System. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall. Violanti, J.M. (2008, September 29). Impact Of Stress On Police Officers’ Physical And Mental Health. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 15, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2008/09/080926105029.htm Table One Type of Police and Law Enforcement Agency Male Officers Female Officers New Jersey State Police 96% 4% Municipal Police Agencies 94% 6% Port Authority Police 93% 7% (N=3,065) Calls to COP 2 COP 2,275 (67%) 790 (23%) Type of Police and Law Enforcement Agency Male Officers Female Officers New Jersey State Police 96% 4% Municipal Police Agencies 94% 6% Port Authority Police 93% 7% (N=3,065) Calls to COP 2 COP 2,275 (67%) 790 (23%) Table Two Type of Mental Health Issue Reported Male Officers Female Officers Significance % of Officers calling regarding Substance Abuse 11% 9% % of Officers calling regarding Anxiety 26% 23% % of Officers calling regarding Suicide Ideation 6.5% 3.5% < .01 % of Officers calling regarding Depression 32% 27% < .01 % of Officers calling regarding Eating Disorders 1% 2% % of Officers calling regarding Marital/Family Issue 27% 20% < .01 % of Officers calling regarding a current, recent or past PTSD Event 18.3% 11.5% < .01 % of Officers calling regarding Stress ranging from Little, to Moderate to High Level of Stress 23% 14.4% < .01

 
 

“Gender Differences in Police Stress and Trauma: An Analysis of Self Reported Stress and Trauma to a Peer Counseling Hotline” 

 

 

Joseph E. Pascarella, Ph.D., M.P.H.

Queens College, City University of New York

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

 

 

 

120 to 150 Words

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Statement of the Problem

 

 

500 – 750 words

 

Background Research and Evaluation

Annotated Bibliography –  5 Peer Reviewed References

Radelet, M. A., Lephart, S. M., Rubinstein, E. N. & Meyers, J. B. (2002). Survey of the Injury Rate for Children in Community Sports.  Pediatrics, 110, 3, 1-11.

  • Compared injury rates youths 7-13
  • Age 7-13, youth football same injury rate as soccer and baseball, however, significantly more than basketball
  • According to CDC – among athletes ages 5 to 14, 28 percent of percent of football players, 25 percent of baseball players, 22 percent of soccer players, 15 percent of basketball players, and 12 percent of softball players were injured while playing their respective sports

 

SEMINAL RESEARCH (One Paragraph, 250 words)

First, Original Research

CHRONOLOGICAL RESEARCH (One Paragraph, 250 words)

GAPS in RESEARCH (One Paragraph, 250 words)

 

 

 

500-750 Words Background Research

 

 

 

 

Conclusions and Recommendations

 

250-750 words

 

 

 

References

 

Benotsch, E. G., Brailey, K., Vasterling, J. J., Uddo, M., Constans, J. I., & Sutker, P. B. (2000).

War Zone stress, personal and environmental resources, and PTSD symptoms in Gulf War Veterans: A longitudinal perspective. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 109(2), 205-213. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.109.2.205

 

Blau, T. (1994).  Psychological Services for Law Enforcement.  NY: Wiley.

 

Boulin-Johnson, L. (1991). Job Strain among Police Officers: Gender Comparisons. Police

Studies: International Review of Police Development, 14 (1), 12-16.

 

Bowler, R. M., Han, H., Gocheval, V., Nakagawa, S., Alper, H., DiGrande, L. & Cone, J. E.

(2010).  Gender differences in probable posttraumatic stress disorder among police responders to the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attack.  American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 53 (12), 1186-1196.

 

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2010).  Percent of full-time sworn employees in 2000 by

            race/ethnicity and gender.

Available at:

http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/dataonline/Search/Law/Local/RunLawLocalSelectedTables.cfm

 

Brown, J. and Fielding, J. (1993). Qualitative differences and women police officers’

experience of occupational stress. Work & Stress, 71, 327-40.

 

Carlan, P. E. & Nored, L. S. (2008).  An Examination of Officer Stress: Should Police

Departments Implement Mandatory Counseling?  Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 23 (1), 8 – 15.

 

Chandra, A. & Mikovitz, C. S. (2006). Stigma starts early: Gender differences in teen

willingness to use mental health services. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 754.e1-754.e8.

 

Chae, M. & Boyle, D. (2013). Chae, M. & Boyle, D.J. (in Press). Police suicide: Prevalence,

risk, and protective factors. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and

Management.

 

Cop2Cop. (2012).  Cop2Cop.

Retrieved from: http://ubhc.umdnj.edu/cop2cop/main.htm

 

Cordner, G. & Cordner, A. (2011).  Stuck on a Plateau?: Obstacles to Recruitment, Selection,

and Retention of Women Police. Police Quarterly, 14, 207-227.

 

Dowler, K. & Arai, B. (2008). Stress, gender and policing: the impact of

perceived gender discrimination on symptoms of stress. International Journal of Police Science & Management. 10 (2), 123-135.

 

Gould, L. A. (2000). A Longitudinal Approach to the Study of the Police Personality:

Race/Gender Differences.  Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 15 (2), 41-51.

 

Hage, S. M., & Romano, J. L. (2010). History of prevention and prevention groups: Legacy for

the 21st century. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, And Practice, 14(3), 199-210. doi:10.1037/a0020736

 

He, N., Zhao, J. & Ren, L. (2005).  Do race and gender matter in police stress? A preliminary

assessment of interactive effects. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33, 535-547.

 

He, N., Zhao, J. & Archbold, C. A. (2006).  Gender and police stress: The convergent and

divergent impact of work environment, work-family conflict, and stress coping mechanisms of female and male police officers.  Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 25 (4), 687-708.

 

Herbert, S. (1998). Police Subculture Reconsidered. Criminology,(36),2,  343–370.

 

Hemp, C. A. (2008).   Female officers and the ethic of care: Does officer gender impact police

behaviors?  Journal of Criminal Justice, 36 (5), 426 -434.

 

Hennings-Plaxton, C. (2004). Law enforcement organizational behavior and the

occurrence of post-traumatic stress symptomology in law enforcement personnel

following a critical incident.  Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 19 (2),

53-63.

 

Johnson-Leonor-Boulin. (1991). Job strain among police officers: gender comparisons.

Police Studies, 14 (1), 12-16. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

 

Kendler, K. S., Thornton, L. M., Prescott, C. A. (2001). Gender Differences in the Rates

of Exposure to Stressful Life Events and Sensitivity to Their Depressiongenic Effects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158 (4), 587-593.

 

Kurtz, D.L. (2008). Controlled Burn: The Gendering of Stress and Burnout in Modern

Policing.  Feminist Criminology, 3, 216-238.

Doi:10.1177/1557085108321672

 

Langlotz, A. (2007). [Review of the book Calling for Help.  Language and Social

Interaction in Telephone Helplines].  Discourse and Society, 18 (5), 682-684.

 

Lanterman, J. L., Boyle, D. J., Pascarella, J. E., Furrer, S. (2010). Police Stress and

Access to Confidential Support Services. Police Psychology (James E. Peters, Editor). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

 

 

 

Littleton, H., Axsom, D., & Grills-Taquechel, A. E. (2011). Longitudinal evaluation of the

relationship between maladaptive trauma coping and distress: examination following the mass shooting at Virginia Tech. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 24(3), 273-290.

 

Lengua, L., Stormshak, E. A. (2000). Gender, Gender Roles, and Personality: Gender

Differences in the Prediction of Coping and Psychological Symptoms. Sex Roles, 43 (11/12), 787-820.

 

Lilly, M. M., Pole, N., Best, S. R., Metzler, T., & Marmar, C. R. (2009). Gender and

PTSD: What can we learn from female police officers? Journal of Anxiety

Disorders, 23, 767–776.

 

MacKinnon, C. (1998). Empowered Consumers and Telephone Hotlines. Crisis, 19 (1),

21-23.

 

Madonna, J.M. & Kelly, R. E. (2002). Treating Police Stress: The Work and the Words

of Peer Counselors.  C. Thomas Publisher: Springfield, IL.

 

Martinussen, M., Richardsen, A.M. & Burke, R. J. (2007). Job demands, job resources,

and burnout among police officers.  Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 239-249.

 

Megerian, C. (2010) N.J. Cop2Cop law enforcement suicide prevention program celebrates 10-

year anniversary.  NJ.COM Online.

Retrieved from:

)anniversary.html

 

Morash, M., Kwak, D.H. & Haarr, R. (2006). Gender differences in the predictors of

police stress. Policing, 29(3), 541-563.  Retrieved June 14, 2011, from ProQuest Criminal Justice. (Document ID: 1143421981).

 

McCarty, W.,  Zhao, J. &  Garland, B.  (2007). Gender and Work Related Stress in

Policing.   Policing: An International Journal of Police Science and Management, 30, 672-691.

McPherson-Sexton, S. A. (2006). A Comprehensive View of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder:

Populations, Etiology, Treatments, and More. Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations, 6 (1), 93-124.

 

National Center for Women in Policing (2002).  Status of Women in Policing, 2001.

Available at:

http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Status_Report.pdf

 

Norvell, N. K., Hills, H. A., Murrin, M.R. (1993).  Understanding Stress in Female and

Male Law Enforcement Officers.  Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 289-301.

 

 

 

Ojeda, V. D. & Bergstresser, S. M. (2008). Race-Ethnicity, and Psychosocial Barriers to Mental

Health Care: An Examination of Perceptions and Attitudes among Adults Reporting Unmet Need. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49 (3), 317-334.

 

Olff, M., Langeland, W., Draijer, N., Gersons, B. P. R., (2007). Gender differences in

posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133(2), 183-204.

doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.2.183

 

Omer, S. B., Barnett, D. J., Castellano, C., Wierzba, R. K., Hiremath, G. S., Balicer, R.

  1. (2008). Impact of Homeland Security Alter Level on Calls to a Law

Enforcement Peer Support Hotline.  International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 9 (4), 253-258.

 

Ortega, A., Brenner, S.O. & Leather, P. (2007). Stress in police officers and police staff: a

structural model. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 9 (1), 36-50.

 

Pineles, S. L., Mostoufi, S. M., Ready, C., Street, A. E., Griffin, M. G., & Resick, P. A. (2011).

Trauma reactivity, avoidant coping, and PTSD symptoms: A moderating relationship?. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 120(1), 240-246. doi:10.1037/a0022123

 

Plaxton-Hennings, C. (2004).  Law enforcement organizational behavior and the occurrence of

post traumatic symptomology. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, (19) 2, 53-63.

 

Pole, N., Best, S. R., Weiss, D. S., Metzler, T., Liberman, A. M., Fagan, J., Marmar, C.

  1. (2001). Effects of Gender and Ethnicity on Duty-Related Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Urban Police Officers. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, (7), 442-448.

 

Poteyeva, M. & Sun, I. Y. (2009). Gender differences in police officers’ attitudes: Assessing

current empiricial evidence. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 512-522.

 

Price, B. R. (1996). Female Police Officers in the United States. Policing in Central and

Eastern Europe: Comparing Firsthand Knowledge with Experience from the West. Available at:

http://www.ncjrs.gov/policing/fem635.htm

 

Rochlen, A. B. & Hoyer, W. D. (2005). Marketing Mental Health to Men: Theoretical and

Practical Considerations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16 (6), 675-684.

 

Santos, A., Leather, P., Dunn, & Zarola, A. (2009).  Gender differences in exposure to co-

worker and public-initiated violence: Assessing the impact of work-related violence and aggression in police work.  Work & Stress, 23 (2), 137-154.

 

Schaub, M. & Williams, M. (2007).  Examining the relations between masculine gender role

conflict and men’s expectations about counseling. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8, (1), XX.

Schulz, D. M. (1995). From Social Worker to Crimefighter: Women in United States Municipal

Policing. Journal of Criminal Justice, 23, 6, 571-572.

 

Seely, M. F. (1998). Hotlines and Mental Health Services. Crisis, 19 (1), 4-5.

 

Sheehan, D. C., Everly, G. S., Langlieb, A. (2004).  Current Best Practices: Coping with

Major Critical Incidents.  FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 73 (9), 1-13.

Steel, B. S. & Lovrich, N. P. (1987). Equality and Efficiency Tradeoffs in Affirmative Action-

Real or Imagined? The Case of Women in Policing.  The Social Science Journal, 24 (1), 53-70.

 

Tolin, D. F. & Foa, E. B. (2006). Sex Differences in Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress

Disorder: A Quantitative Review of 25 Years of Research. Psychological Bulletin, 132 (6), 959-992.

 

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012a). Women at Work.

Retrieved from:

http://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2011/women/

 

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012b). A century of change:

the U.S. labor force, 1950–2050

Retrieved from:

http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2002/05/art2full.pdf

 

United States Department of Justice (2010).  Census of Local and State Law Enforcement

Agencies.  Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

 

United States Department of Labor. (2010). Women’s Bureau: Statistics and Data.

Available at:

http://www.dol.gov/wb/stats/main.htm

United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2010a).   Full-time

law enforcement employees.

Available at:

http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2008/data/table_74.html

 

United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2010b).  Facts and

Figures, 2003.

Available at:

http://www.fbi.gov/libref/factsfigure/employ.htm

 

United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2010c). Federal law

enforcement officers, 2004.

Available at:

http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/fleo04.pdf

 

 

United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2010c). Federal Bureau of

Investigation.  Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2009.

http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/killed/2009/officersassaulted.html

 

University Behavioral Health Care (UBHC). 2012. Cop2Cop: History.  Retreived from:

http://ubhc.umdnj.edu/cop2cop/history.htm

 

Violanti, J. M., Castellano, C., O”Rourke, J., Paton, D. (2006).  Proximity to the 9/11

Terrorist Attack and Suicide Ideation in Police Officers.  Traumatology, 12, 248-254.

DOI:10.1177/1534765606296533.

 

van Wormer, K. S. & Bartollas, C. (2010). Women and the Criminal Justice System. Upper

Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall.

 

Violanti, J.M. (2008, September 29). Impact Of Stress On Police Officers’ Physical And

Mental Health. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 15, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2008/09/080926105029.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table One

 

 

        Type of Police and Law Enforcement Agency     Male Officers  Female Officers
New Jersey State Police           96%              4%
                      Municipal Police Agencies           94%              6%
                            Port Authority Police           93%              7%
(N=3,065) Calls to COP 2 COP     2,275 (67%)    790  (23%)

 

 

        Type of Police and Law Enforcement Agency     Male Officers  Female Officers
New Jersey State Police           96%              4%
                      Municipal Police Agencies           94%              6%
                            Port Authority Police           93%              7%
(N=3,065) Calls to COP 2 COP     2,275 (67%)    790  (23%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table Two

 

 

 

 

Type of Mental Health Issue Reported

 

    Male Officers  Female Officers Significance
 

% of Officers calling regarding  Substance Abuse

            11%         9%  
 

% of Officers calling regarding  Anxiety

           26%         23%  
 

% of Officers calling regarding  Suicide Ideation

           6.5%         3.5%         

         < .01

 

% of Officers calling regarding  Depression

           32%         27%         

         < .01

 

% of Officers calling regarding  Eating Disorders

             1%           2%  
 

% of Officers calling regarding  Marital/Family Issue

             27%          20%         

         < .01

% of Officers calling regarding a current, recent or past PTSD Event            18.3%        11.5%         

         < .01

% of Officers calling regarding Stress ranging from Little, to Moderate to High Level of Stress             23%        14.4%        

          < .01

 

 

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